The Pentateuch, the name by which the first five books of theBible are designated, is derived from two Greek words, pente, "five," andteuchos, a "volume," thus signifying the fivefold volume. ISBN 9780802826794. The book has traditionally been ascribed to Moses. Compiled & Edited by BibleStudyTools Staff, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, California - Do Not Sell My Personal Information. These studies provide Bible answers to Bible questions and will guide you to God's truth as revealed by His Holy Word. Itappears certain, however, that it could not have been written prior to the time of Samuel(see Ruth 4:17-22 ), who isgenerally supposed to have been its author; and this opinion, in addition to other reasonson which it rests, is confirmed by Ruth4:7 , where it is evident that the history was not compiled till long after thetransactions recorded. ), xxvi. Homemaking, Homeschooling, Homesteading, Home Business and Other Stuff of Life. The PURPOSE for writing this book is not to entertain the careless, nor for predicting the future. NIV Study Bible, pp. We propose to take them in order, and to give under each not merely lists of passages or things, but to, where possible, explain their significance and illustrate their meaning. In the Septuagintthe title given them is Paraleipomenon, "of things omitted," that is, thebooks are supplementary because many things unnoticed in the former books are hererecorded; and not only the omissions are supplied, but some narratives extended whileothers are added. 84-90. Today they are associated with computers and the depersonalization that threatens our society." THE FIRST AND SECOND BOOKS OF SAMUEL. What these frequently used numerics mean reveals the mind of God and the divine design of His revelation to man. The symbolism of numbers 1, 3 and 7 are most agreed upon, while variations may occur with others. Although the arrangement of some is obvious, others are not and require. What the four Gospels are in the New, the five books of Moses are in the OldTestament.". The style and unity ofobject in the book clearly prove it to have been the production of but one author. 2. Mark Dever: ...The Message of Numbers  Capitol Hill Baptist Church. EZRA was, along with Nehemiah, reckoned onebook by the ancient Jews, who called them the First and Second Books of Ezra, and they arestill designated by Roman Catholic writers the First and Second Books of Esdras. R. K. Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament, pp. This series will primarily focus on their spiritual significance. Secondly, there arethe testimonies borne in various parts of the later historical books to the Pentateuch asa work well known, and familiar to all the people (see Joshua 1:8 ; 23:6 ; 24:26 ; 1 Kings 2:3 , &c.) Thirdly,frequent references are made in the works of the prophets to the facts recorded in thebooks of Moses (compare Isaiah 1:9 with Genesis 19:1 ; Isaiah 12:2 with Exodus 15:2 ; Isaiah 51:2 with Genesis 12:2 ; Isaiah 54:9 with Genesis 8:21 Genesis 8:22 ; compare Hosea 9:10 with Numbers 25:3 ; Hosea 11:8 with Genesis 19:24 ; Hosea 12:4 with Genesis 32:24 Genesis 32:25 ; Hosea 12:12 with Genesis 28:5 ; 29:20 ; compare Joel 1:9 with Numbers 15:4-7 ; 28:7-14 ; Deuteronomy 12:6 Deuteronomy 12:7 ; Deuteronomy 16:10 Deuteronomy 11 ; compare Amos 2:9 with Numbers 21:21 ; Amos 4:4 with Numbers 28:3 ; Amos 4:11 with Genesis 19:24 ; Amos 9:13 with Leviticus 26:5 ; compare Micah 6:5 with Numbers 22:25 ; Micah 6:6 with Leviticus 9:2 ; Micah 6:15 with Leviticus 26:16 , &c.)Fourthly, the testimony of Christ and the Apostles is repeatedly borne to the books ofMoses ( Matthew 19:7 ; Luke 16:29 ; 24:27 ; John 1:17 ; 7:19 ; Acts 3:22 ; 28:23 ; Romans 10:5 ). C. One of the difficulties of analyzing Numbers is its rather unusual organization of material; i.e., the mixture of law and narrative and its inclusion of miscellaneous material. But, substantially, the Pentateuch is the genuine work of Moses, and many, whoonce impugned its claims to that character, and looked upon it as the production of alater age, have found themselves compelled, after a full and unprejudiced investigation ofthe subject, to proclaim their conviction that its authenticity is to be fully relied on. What galaxies are mentioned in Scripture. -- is unmistakably priestly in its interests and language. Author and Date. Itsinspiration and canonical authority are fully established by the repeated testimonies ofother Scripture writers (compare Joshua6:26 with 1 Kings 16:34 ;compare Joshua 10:13 with Habakkuk 3:11 ; Joshua 3:14 with Acts 7:45 ; Joshua 6:17-23 with Hebrews 11:30 ; Joshua 2:1-24 with James 2:25 ; Psalm 44:2 ; 68:12-14 ; 78:54-55 ). The few passages on which the rationalists grounded theirassertions that it was the composition of a later age have been successfully shown towarrant no such conclusion; the use of Egyptian words and the minute acquaintance withEgyptian life and manners, displayed in the history of Joseph, harmonize with theeducation of Moses, and whether he received his information by immediate revelation, fromtradition, or from written documents, it comes to us as the authentic work of an authorwho wrote as he was inspired by the Holy Ghost ( 2 Peter 1:21 ). But alittle attention will show the futility of this objection, as the words in question didnot refer to the writer, but were used by Tatnai and his associates ( Ezra 5:3 ). Theadmission of Moses to the privilege of frequent and direct communion with God ( Exodus 25:22 ; 33:3 ; Numbers 7:89 ; 9:8 ); his repeated and solemndeclarations that he spoke and wrote by command of God; the submissive reverence that waspaid to the authority of his precepts by all classes of the Jewish people, including theking himself ( Deuteronomy 17:18 ; 27:3 ); and the acknowledgment ofthe divine mission of Moses by the writers of the New Testament, all prove the inspiredcharacter and authority of his books. Its authorship by Moses is distinctly asserted by himself ( Exodus 24:4 ), as well as by ourLord ( Mark 12:26 ; Luke 20:37 ). The names they bear in our Englishversion are borrowed from the Septuagint, and they were applied by those Greektranslators as descriptive of the principal subjects--the leading contents of therespective books. Numbers relates the story of Israel's journey from Mount Sinai to the plains of Moab on the border of Canaan. God is 'The Great Geometrician' and does everything after a plan by number, weight, and measure. R. K. Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament, pp. Purpose and Scope. The numerous and oft-recurringreferences made in the later Scriptures to the events, the ritual, and the doctrines ofthe ancient Church would have not only lost much of their point and significance, but havebeen absolutely unintelligible without the information which these five books contain.They constitute the groundwork or basis on which the whole fabric of revelation rests, anda knowledge of the authority and importance that is thus attached to them willsufficiently account for the determined assaults that infidels have made on these books,as well as for the zeal and earnestness which the friends of the truth have displayed intheir defense. Key personalities include Moses, Aaron, Miriam, Joshua, Caleb, Eleazar, Korah, and Balaam. https://www.esv.org/resources/esv-global-study-bible/introduction-to-numbers All rights reserved. For example, the fact that a four-leaf clover has four pedals doesn’t hold any spiritual significance. of Eerdmans. We'll send you an email with steps on how to reset your password. Meaning of Numbers in the Bible. TITLE:. The Pentateuch, the name by which the first five books of theBible are designated, is derived from two Greek words, pente, "five," and teuchos, a "volume," thus signifying the fivefold volume. Please enter your email address associated with your Salem All-Pass account, then click Continue. CHRONOLOGICAL SETTING:. Numbers - Introduction. Their connections and patterns, when we search them out and understand them, reveal the handiwork of God. 1a. Today they are associated with computers and the depersonalization that threatens our society.' An essential key to understanding God's Word and its design is through the meaning of Biblical numbers. It is chiefly,however, the duties of the priests, "the sons of Aaron," which this bookdescribes; and its claim to be the work of Moses is established by the followingpassages:-- 2 Chronicles 30:16 ; Nehemiah 8:14 ; Jeremiah 7:22-23 ; Ezekiel 20:11 ; Matthew 8:4 ; Luke 2:22 ; John 8:5 Romans 10:4 ; 13:9 ; 2 Corinthians 6:16 ; Galatians 3:12 ; 1 Peter 1:16 . It is interesting to note that, on average, one in every five scriptural verses contains a number. Accordingly, in the Septuagint and the Vulgate, it is calledthe First and Second Books of Kings. There is thestrongest reason, then, for believing that the Pentateuch, as it exists now, issubstantially the same as it came from the hands of Moses. The odds would be astronomical to have this many distinct authors, writing over a period of nearly three thousand eight hundred years, consistently following a complex numerical pattern. So called from its treating ofthe laws relating to the ritual, the services, and sacrifices of the Jewish religion, thesuperintendence of which was entrusted to the Levitical priesthood. The early partof it, from the first through the tenth chapters, appears to be a supplement to Leviticus,being occupied with relating the appointment of the Levites to the sacred offices. Elwell; Baker Book House, Grand Rapids MI, 1989. Numbers - 'Its very title puts the modern reader off', writes Gordon Wenham. Watch our overview video on the book of Numbers, which breaks down the literary design of the book and its flow of thought. 614-615. They were travelling from Egypt to a country called Canaan. The book of Numbers is named for the Lord’s instruction to Moses to number, or count, all the Israelite males “from twenty years old and upward, all that are able to go forth to war” (Numbers 1:3). Numbers  Part of the series: Visual Survey of the Bible. Bible prophecy numbers are primarily meant to demonstrate that Jesus Christ is the one and only messiah. The major portion of the book is occupied with a history ofNehemiah's twelve years' administration in Jerusalem, after which he returned to hisduties in Shushan. 1. Title The English title “Numbers” comes from the Greek (LXX) and Latin (Vg.) Copyright © 2020, Bible Study Tools. Moses counted the Israelite males twice, once at Mount Sinai and later in … It can easily be shown the supernatural design in the use of numbers, both in the works of God and in the Word of God. Kenneth Boa: 8. The Pentateuch possessed the strongest claims on theattention of the Jewish people, as forming the standard of their faith, the rule of theirobedience, the record of their whole civil and religious polity. The early portion of the First Book, down to the endof the twenty-fourth chapter, was probably written by Samuel; while the rest of it and thewhole of the Second, are commonly ascribed to Nathan and Gad, founding the opinion on 1Chronicles 29:29 . It is afragmentary history, being a collection of important facts and signal deliverances atdifferent times and in various parts of the land, during the intermediate period of threehundred years between Joshua and the establishment of the monarchy. The Latin Vulgate labeled it “Numbers;” a name suggested by the censuses that are reported in the book in chapters one and twenty-six (G. Van Groningen, p. The preponderance of authorities is in favor of the last. At a later period he returned with new powers and commenced new andvigorous measures of reform, which are detailed in the later chapters of the book. Their connections and patterns, when we search them out and understand them, reveal the handiwork of God. Treasures Old and New: Essays in the Theology of the Pentateuch. The appearance of a later hand,it is true, is traceable in the narrative of the death of Moses at the close ofDeuteronomy, and some few interpolations, such as inserting the altered names of places,may have been made by Ezra, who revised and corrected the version of the ancientScriptures. The book tells of the murmuring and rebellion of God's people and of their subsequent judgment. The Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch is established by theconcurring voices both of Jewish and Christian tradition; and their unanimous testimony issupported by the internal character and statements of the work itself. E. J. 'To whom then will you compare Me, or who is My equal?' 614-615. The date and authorship of this book are not preciselyknown. Article Images Copyright © 2020 Getty Images unless otherwise indicated. Edward F. Vallowe, in his book entitled Biblical Mathematics, writes the following. The book tells of the murmuring and rebellion of God's people and of their subsequent judgment. These lessons are only available at this Internet site. At what time they were divided into five portions, eachhaving a separate title, is not known, but it is certain that the distinction dates at orbefore the time of the Septuagint translation. The minute notices of the heathen people with whom they had come incontact, but who afterward disappeared from the pages of history, as well as the accountsof the fertility and products of Canaan, and the counsels respecting the conquest of thatcountry, fix the date of this book and the time of its composition by the hand of Moses.The close, however, must have been added by another; and, indeed, it is supposed by someto have formed the original preface to the Book of Joshua. 24:44; Jn. Though the scientific community has discovered several of these immutable laws, men actually know little to nothing about Godâs limitless universe. The authorship of these books is unknown; but the prevailingopinion is that they were compiled by Ezra, or one of the later prophets, from the ancientdocuments that are so frequently referred to in the course of the history as of public andestablished authority. For in relating the victory over the Amalekites, which he wascommanded by divine authority to record, the language employed, "write this for amemorial in a book" [Hebrew, the book], ( Exodus 17:14 ), shows that thatnarrative was to form part of a register already in progress, and various circumstancescombine to prove that this register was a continuous history of the special goodness andcare of divine providence in the choice, protection, and guidance of the Hebrew nation.First, there are the repeated assertions of Moses himself that the events which checkeredthe experience of that people were written down as they occurred (see Exodus 24:4-7 ; 34:27 ; Numbers 33:2 ). In the New Testament numerous allusions to incidents in the Book of Numbers appear: the bronze serpent (Jn 3:14–15), the sedition of Korah and its consequences (1 Cor 10:10), the prophecies of Balaam (2 Pt 2:15–16), and the water gushing from the rock (1 Cor 10:4). In the Hebrew Bible it has the title, “In the Wilderness,” (which is the fourth word in the Hebrew text.) The chief objectionis founded on Ezra 5:4 , wherethe words, "Then said we unto them after this manner, What are the names of the menthat make this building?" But it is interesting andimportant to all mankind, inasmuch as besides revealing the origin and early developmentof the divine plan of grace, it is the source of all authentic knowledge, giving the truephilosophy, history, geography, and chronology of the ancient world. Numbers relates the story of Israel's journey from Mount Sinai to the plains of Moab on the border of Canaan. Salem Media Group. A . On the twentieth day of the second month of the second year … As it does for the rest of the Pentateuch, universal Jewish and Christian tradition attributes the authorship of the book of Numbers to As a narrative ofGod's faithfulness in giving the Israelites possession of the promised land, this historyis most valuable, and bears the same character as a sequel to the Pentateuch, that theActs of the Apostles do to the Gospels. ESTHER derives its name from the Jewess,who, having become wife of the king of Persia, employed her royal influence to effect amemorable deliverance for the persecuted Church of God. It is certain, however, that it preceded the Second Book of Samuel (compare Judges 9:35 with 2 Samuel 11:21 ), as well as theconquest of Jerusalem by David (compare Judges 1:21 with 2 Samuel 5:6 ). Numbers Introduction – Easy English Bible (EASY) – This is the story of Israel's people. Thejournal of the march through the wilderness is then given as far as Numbers 21:20 ; after which theearly incidents of the invasion are narrated. The two parts are essentially connected; theone, which sets out with an account of the descent of the human race from a single pair,the introduction of sin into the world, and the announcement of the scheme of divine mercyfor repairing the ruins of the fall, was necessary to pave the way for relating the other,namely, the call of Abraham, and the selection of his posterity for carrying out thegracious purpose of God. But this, at least in thecase of Rahab, is no valid reason for rejecting the idea of his authorship; for assumingwhat is most probable, that this book was composed toward the close of Joshua's longcareer, or compiled from written documents left by him, Rahab might have been still alive.A more simple and satisfactory way of accounting for the frequent insertion of the clause,"unto this day," is the opinion that it was a comment introduced by Ezra, whenrevising the sacred canon; and this difficulty being removed, the direct proofs of thebook having been produced by a witness of the transactions related in it, the strong andvivid descriptions of the passing scenes, and the use of the words "we" and"us," ( Joshua 5:1-6 ),viewed in connection with the fact, that, after his farewell address to the people, Joshua"wrote these words in the book of the law of God" ( Joshua 24:26 )--all afford strongpresumptive proof that the entire book was the work of that eminent individual. Indeed, God has wonderfully revealed Himself through His creation (Romans 1:20). Althoughit relates an episode belonging to the time of the Judges, its precise date is unknown. NUMBERS. Thetwo were, by the ancient Jews, conjoined so as to make one book, and in that form could becalled the Book of Samuel with more propriety than now, the second being wholly occupiedwith the relation of transactions that did not take place till after the death of thateminent judge. Much of its legislation for people and priests is similar to that in Exodus, Leviticus and Deuteronomy. An Introduction to the Book of Numbers I. The book of numbers is largely Narrative History as far as its genre. But the uniform tradition both of the Jewish and the Christian Churchessupports this claim, which nothing in the book tends to shake; while it is a record of thesuperintending care of divine providence over his chosen people, with which it is of theutmost importance the Church should be furnished. Introduction. EXODUS, a "going forth," derivesits name from its being occupied principally with a relation of the departure of theIsraelites from Egypt, and the incidents that immediately preceded as well as followedthat memorable migration. Home; Homesteading; Crafts; Food; Homeschooling; Sundry Musings 'Lift up your eyes on high, and behold, who has created these things, who brings out their host by number' (Isaiah 40:25). One direct quotation only from this book ( Numbers 16:5 ) is made in the NewTestament ( 2 Timothy 2:19 ); butindirect references to it by the later sacred writers are very numerous. Certain prophetic books of the Bible, such as Daniel and Revelation, introduce a complex, interrelated system of numerology which exhibits definite patterns. It is the fourth book of the Pentateuch. E. J. Contents. The name of the book refers to a prominent feature of the story, that is, the census which Moses took of the Israelites at Mount Sinai before their departure, and again in Moab, east of the Jordan, … Just as God employed mathematical laws to create everything, He used numerals in the design of His word. Their inspired character was acknowledged by the Jewish Church,which ranked them in the sacred canon; and, besides, it is attested by our Lord, whofrequently quotes from them (compare 1 Kings 17:9 ; 2 Kings 5:14 with Luke 4:24-27 ; 1 Kings 10:1 with Matthew 12:42 ). Introduction The Book of Numbers, called Arithmoi (meaning “Arithmetic”) in the Septuagint, gets its name from the census in chapters 1 and 26. 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